Maritime spatial planning
Activities at the sea (shipping, fisheries) have been taking place for centuries. However, new sea uses, such as renewable energy development, aquaculture, extraction of mineral and energy resources (hydrocarbons, renewables, aggregates) and ports development have brought competition for marine space in addition to environmental concerns. Management of human activities at the sea has become more complex, requiring better coordination and planning. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) helps various users to balance sectoral interests that compete for marine space, and contribute to achieving sustainable use of marine areas to the benefit of economic and social development as well as the marine environment. MSP has to be aligned with terrestrial planning to ensure well-functioning land-sea interactions (LSI).